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6.19 Preventing and Tackling the Criminal Exploitation of Children

SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER

This chapter recognises the concern that exists with regard to children and young people who are used, through whatever means, to engage in criminal activity by other young people or adults who are able to coerce them to do so. The young people involved may not identify themselves as being ‘exploited’ as such, but it is clearly to their detriment that they are involved in this type of activity.

The chapter seeks to provide a definition of the concept and a range of tools by which to assess the risk, together with a clear framework for agencies to work in.

This procedure has been developed in consultation with:

Knowsley Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH), Knowsley Community Health, Whiston Hospital, Stronger Families, Knowsley Youth Offending Service, Knowsley Children’s Social Care, Knowsley Safeguarding and Quality Assurance, Knowsley Neighbourhood Inspectors, the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting, Safer Communities, Knowsley Youth Mutual, Knowsley Education Improvement, Knowsley School Attendance Service and Knowsley Housing Trust.

RELEVANT CHAPTER

Children Affected by Gang Activity and Youth Violence Procedure

AMENDMENT

This chapter was comprehensively updated and amended throughout in July 2017 and includes a Risk Reduction Tool and process Flow Chart.


Contents

  1. Purpose of the Procedure
  2. Scope
  3. Definitions of Child Criminal Exploitation
  4. Procedure: What to do if you are concerned a child is at risk from Criminal Exploitation
  5. Role of the SHIELD Team and the CCE Section of the Child and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting
  6. CCE Process Flowchart
  7. Complaints Procedure

    Appendix 1: CCE Measurement tool and CCE Risk Reduction Plan

    Appendix 2: Guidance on Completing the CCE Measurement Tool

    Appendix 3: CCE Process

    Appendix 4: CCE Notification of Exploitation Risk

    Appendix 5: CCE2 – Notification of Exploitation Risk Level Change

    Appendix 6: Multi Agency Referral Form (MARF) 

    Appendix 7: Quality Assurance CCE Tool

    Appendix 8: Guidance on Completing CCE Risk Reduction Plan and Example 

    Appendix 9: Menu of Interventions


1. Purpose of the Procedure

To provide all agencies with clear local guidance on the process in relation to children who are at risk of Child Criminal Exploitation (CCE), or who are currently being exploited. A child is defined as anyone who has not yet reached their 18th birthday.

To support KSCB’s Priority 3 – that children and young people in Knowsley are safeguarded from exploitation including child sexual exploitation.

To ensure that a coordinated approach across all agencies is taken when considering the risk level of children who may be criminally exploited.

To ensure that there is an effective strategy in place to manage and reduce the risk to these vulnerable children that this response is tailored to their agreed level of risk and that roles and responsibilities within this are identified and clearly defined.

To ensure effective monitoring of young people identified as a medium risk of criminal exploitation or higher.

To promote information sharing across all agencies and a joined up approach to risk reduction.

To provide appropriate management oversight of these vulnerable children.

The procedure is not intended to replace individual agency procedures nor replace other actions that workers may take to safeguard children and young people.

This guidance should be read alongside the knowsley Local Safeguarding Children’s Board Position Statement April 2015 where the local profile is outlined. It should also


2. Scope

This procedure applies to all staff who are working directly or indirectly with children, young people and their families in the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley. This procedure also applies to young people placed in Knowsley by other responsible authorities and Knowsley CLA who are placed outside of Knowsley.


3. Definitions of Child Criminal Exploitation

There is no legal definition of child criminal exploitation (CCE) through organised crime groups in England and Wales.

For Knowsley, the exploitation of children and young people under-18 is defined as that which:

‘involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or persons) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) as a result of them completing a task on behalf of another individual or group of individuals; this is often of a criminal nature. Child criminal exploitation often occurs without the child’s immediate recognition, with the child believing that they are in control of the situation. In all cases, those exploiting the child/young person have power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in exploitative relationships being characterised in the main by the child or young person’s limited availability of choice resulting from their social/economic and/or emotional vulnerability.’

The criminal exploitation of children includes a combination of:

  • Pull factors: children performing tasks for others resulting in them gaining accommodation, food, gifts, status or a sense of safety, money or drugs; often the hook is through the perpetrator supplying Class B drugs such as cannabis to the child or young person;
  • Push factors: children escaping from situations where their needs are neglected and there is exposure to unsafe individuals, where there is high family conflict or the absence of a primary attachment figure;
  • Control: Brain washing, violence and threats of violence by those exploiting the child particularly when the child or young person is identified by the police, they are expected to take full responsibility for the offences for which they are charged – i.e. possession and supply of illegal substances.

The majority of children or young people who enter into exploitation do so willingly however, their involvement is indicative of coercion or desperation rather than choice. Many young people do not recognize that they are being exploited or that they are at risk. The majority of children who are vulnerable to criminal exploitation are male however; the possibilities of female involvement should not be dismissed.

It is important to note that perpetrators of CCE may themselves be children who are criminally exploited and that the victims of CCE may also be at risk of becoming perpetrators.


4. Procedure: What to do if you are concerned a child is at risk from Criminal Exploitation

The CCE Measurement tool and Risk Reduction Plan (Appendix 1: CCE Measurement tool and CCE Risk Reduction Plan) should be completed when:

  • A professional or group of professionals is concerned that a child is at risk of becoming, or is currently being, criminally exploited;
  • A parent/caregiver is expressing concern to professionals that their child is at risk of becoming, or is currently being, criminally exploited;
  • A child is indicating that they are at risk of becoming, or are currently being, criminally exploited.

The CCE Measurement tool can be used:

  • To gather information to help decide what is the level of risk and whether a referral needs to made into level 2, 3 or 4 services, (See Table 1 to identify the appropriate CCE threshold for the child);
  • To decide what are the assessed needs and tailor plans to address risk concerns if already open to appropriate level services;
  • Alongside an Early Help assessment if a MARF referral (see Knowsley MASH (Multi-Agency Referral Form)) has been progressed to level 3 services as there are clear indicators of multiple and complex needs and medium risk concerns in relation to CCE;
  • To be completed following level 3 duty visit if the family are refusing to engage with level 3 services to determine whether further involvement is required;
  • Alongside a Single Assessment if a MARF referral has been progressed to level 4 services as there are clear indicators of acute needs and risks and high level CCE concerns/risks;
  • To assist in writing the CCE Risk Reduction plan to address CCE concerns and risks;
  • As part of step up and down procedures.

Where possible, the CCE Measurement tool should be completed within a multi-agency context which includes input from the caregiver(s). For guidance on completing the tool see Appendix 2: Guidance on Completing the CCE Measurement Tool. The relevant Neighbourhood Police must be included in the completion of the CCE Measurement tool.

Once the CCE threshold has been identified, you should follow the procedure set out in Table 1:

Table 1: Child Criminal Exploitation Threshold Matrix

Level of risk Threshold Response Lead
Low
Prevent
No/limited evidence at present to indicate the child is at risk of criminal exploitation

Level 1 – 2 response

Child with emerging needs or low level CCE concerns that requires level 1-2 response in relation to their risk of becoming criminally exploited. These risks can be met with the support of Early Help lead practitioner via an Early Help Assessment and Plan.

Early Help Lead

Practitioner

Medium Some risk of criminal exploitation identified but risk can be managed through multi agency planning and support

Level 3 response

Child with multiple or complex needs or medium risk of CCE that requires level 3 response in relation to their risk of becoming criminally exploited. These risks can be met with the support of a multi-agency Early Help Assessment or other specialist assessments and Plan. Multi-agency planning is required to address their needs CCE Measurement Tool and CCE Risk Reduction plan to be completed and CCE process to be followed. See Appendix 3: CCE Process

Ongoing monitoring and information sharing across agencies is necessary

Lead

Practitioner (YOS Case Manager, Family First Case Manager or Social Worker if already otherwise involved)

High/ is being exploited

The risk of the child being criminally exploited is high and a specialised response is required to reduce the risk of exploitation

The child is already being criminally exploited or is highly likely to be exploited imminently. Immediate action is required and will involve intensive multi- agency support and/or surveillance.

Level 3 response

Child with multiple or complex needs or medium risk of CCE that requires level 3 response in relation to their risk of becoming criminally exploited. These risks can be met with the support of a multi-agency Early Help Assessment or other specialist assessments and Plan. Multi-agency planning is required to address their needs CCE Measurement Tool and CCE Risk Reduction plan to be completed and CCE process to be followed. See Appendix 3: CCE Process

Ongoing monitoring and information sharing across agencies is necessary

The child requires consideration for screening by the MASH to decide whether level 3 or 4 services are required in relation to their risk of becoming or being criminally exploited.

At least Level 3 response if the child is presenting with multiple or complex needs in relation to their risk of becoming criminal exploited. These risks can be met with the support of a multi-agency Early Help Assessment or other specialist assessments and plan. Multi-agency planning is required to address their needs CCE Measurement Tool and CCE Risk Reduction plan to be completed and CCE process to be followed. See Appendix 3: CCE Process

Ongoing monitoring and information sharing across agencies is necessary via CCE process (Appendix 3: CCE Process ).

Level 4 response if the child is presenting with acute needs/ risks including high level of CCE concerns/ risks. The child requires a social-work led assessment in relation to criminal exploitation and a multi-agency statutory response to address their needs CCE Measurement Tool and CCE Risk Reduction plan to be completed and CCE process to be followed. See Appendix 3: CCE Process

Ongoing monitoring and information sharing across agencies is necessary via CCE process

Lead

Practitioner (YOS Case Manager, Family First Case Manager or Social Worker if already otherwise involved)

Family First or YOS Case Manager, or Social Worker

Action: The information below shows what action should be taken once you have identified the threshold of the child using the matrix (Table 1: Child Criminal Exploitation Threshold Matrix). If any advice or guidance is required then please contact the Shield Team. The Shield Team is a multi-agency team for children at risk of sexual and criminal exploitation, trafficking, and missing from home or care placed in and out of the borough.

Low

  1. The CCE Measurement tool documentation should be uploaded onto the child’s case file/record and a copy sent to the Shield Team Shield@knowsley.gcsx.gov.uk;
  2. A recording should be uploaded onto the Early Help Module specifying the date of the CCE Measurement tool completion and outcome. If you are unsure how to do this you should seek help from the Early Help Team in MASH;
  3. The usual response for children within this threshold should be followed - a single agency response to the identified additional needs where required or targeted early support through a Team Around the Family approach. If you are unsure you should seek advice from the Early Help Triage in MASH;
  4. No specific further action is required in relation to the risk of child criminal exploitation at this time.

Medium

  1. The CCE Measurement tool and plan should be uploaded onto the child’s case file/record and a copy sent to the Shield Team. Shield@knowsley.gcsx.gov.uk;

    If at least Level 3 services are not already working with the family and child:
  2. You should make a referral to MASH for further assessment. When making this referral you should include the completed CCE Measurement tool. If you are unsure of this process you should seek advice from the Early Help Triage in MASH;

    If at least Level 3 services are already working with the family and child:
  3. The identified risk factors should be outlined in the CCE Risk Reduction plan and targeted as part of the lead service’s existing plan (i.e. Early Help Family Plan, YOS Intervention Plan, Child in Need). Advice and Guidance on what could be included in this plan can be found in Guidance on completing a CCE risk reduction plan and example (Appendix 8: Guidance on Completing CCE Risk Reduction Plan and Example) and Menu of Interventions (Appendix 9: Menu of Interventions);
  4. The lead professional should inform the Shield Team that they are the lead practitioner so that the case can be progressed via the CCE process. (See Appendix 3: CCE Process). The CCE tool should be reviewed in a multi-agency meeting (including caregivers and child where appropriate) at least every 3 months, sooner if significant information affecting risk level is obtained. The lead agency is responsible for arranging these meetings and this should continue until the risk has reduced;
  5. The review information needs to be captured on the CCE form and new scores written alongside previous scores with new evidence. The review CCE then needs to be saved on lead agency’s electronic recording database and a copy to be sent to the Shield Team. Shield@knowsley.gcsx.gov.uk. The Shield Team will send out reminders when the review CCE is needed so that is can be placed on the CCE section of the Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting’s agenda;
  6. The CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting will monitor the children assessed as a medium and high level of risk of exploitation. For more information on the role of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting; please see Section 5, Role of the Shield Team and the CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting;
  7. If caregivers refuse to engage with professionals at level 3, the CCE Measurement tool must be updated and consideration should be given to a referral to CSC or, if open to YOS, the implementation of a Parenting Order could be considered. Discussion must take place with the Shield Team if the family are refusing to engage and assessed still as medium. The Shield Team will have further conversations with Early Help and Family First managers on the best way forward;
  8. If the young person is assessed as medium however, they do not fit the criteria for level 3 complex family criteria then a discussion needs to take place with Shield. The Shield Team will have further conversations with Early Help and Family First mangers on the best way forward and to determine whether it may be suitable for level 2 Early Help to be the lead practitioner.

High / Being Exploited

  1. The CCE Measurement tool documentation should be uploaded onto the child’s case file/record and a copy sent to the Shield Team. Shield@knowsley.gcsx.gov.uk;

    If at least level 3 or 4 services are not already working with the family and child
  2. You should complete a MARF (Knowsley MASH (Multi-Agency Referral Form)) and forward this to the MASH. You should include the completed CCE Measurement tool within this referral;
  3. The MASH Social Worker in discussion with the Shield Team will decide on the level of further assessment (if any) required;
  4. The lead practitioner should convene a multi-agency meeting, including the caregiver and child where appropriate, to complete/ update the CCE Measurement tool including plan to reduce the risk of exploitation;
  5. The Menu of Interventions (Appendix 9: Menu of Interventions) offers a range of interventions that could be utilized within the plan;
  6. To avoid duplication of meetings, it may be appropriate to complete CCE Measurement Tool and Plan to reduce the risk within the same multi-agency meeting. These should be uploaded onto the lead agency’s recording database within that agency’s agreed timescales;
  7. The lead practitioner should inform the Shield Team that they are the lead practitioner so that the case can be progressed via the CCE process. (See Appendix 3: CCE Process ) Shield@knowsley.gcsx.gov.uk;
  8. The CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting will monitor and gather information on the children assessed as a medium or high risk of CCE. For more information on the role of the CCE section of the Child and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting, please see Section 5, Role of the Shield Team and the CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting;
  9. The CCE Measurement Tool and Plan should be reviewed in a multi-agency meeting (including caregivers and child where appropriate) at least every 3 months - sooner if significant information affecting risk level is obtained. The review information needs to be captured on the CCE form and new scores written alongside previous scores with new evidence. To avoid duplication of meetings, this can be included in existing meetings (i.e. YOS review, Core Group or CIN meetings as appropriate). The updated review CCE Measurement tool and plan must be recorded on lead agency’s electronic files and a copy to be sent to the Shield Team.

If the case is being transferred via step up or down procedures then the Shield Team must be notified who will be the lead practitioner via email Shield@knowsley.gscx.gov.uk

If there are any difficulties with the step up or down procedures then please inform the Shield Coordinator so that further discussions can take place with Early Help and Family First managers.

It is the responsibility of all professionals involved with a child and/or their family, regardless of risk level, to ensure that the appropriate steps are adhered to. If there are irresolvable barriers to this, then the usual escalation policy applies.


5. Role of the SHIELD Team and the CCE Section of the Child and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting

As described in the procedure overleaf, all children who are assessed as a medium or high risk of criminal exploitation will be referred to the CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting. Shield will process all CCE young people via the CCE Process. (Appendix 3: CCE Process)

For children assessed as a medium risk of exploitation, The CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting/Shield will:

  • Maintain a database of children assessed at this level, including (Children Looked After (CLA) young people placed in Knowsley and Knowsley CLA placed out of borough;
  • Cross reference these children with information otherwise included in the meeting;
  • Share an new information with the lead professional via that agency’s meeting representative;
  • Keep a record of and track any changes to their risk level;
  • Provide oversight of assessment information and plan to ensure score is appropriate and there is no missing information;
  • Assist practitioners in their preventative approach through information, advice and guidance and risk based challenge.

For children assessed as high or being exploited, The CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Team / Shield will:

  • Maintain a database of children assessed at these level, including CLA young people placed in Knowsley and Knowsley CLA placed out of borough;
  • Specifically discuss these children within the meeting to gather further relevant information;
  • Share any new information with the lead professional via that agency’s meeting representative;
  • Provide oversight of assessment information and plan to ensure score is appropriate and there is no missing information;
  • Gather information on alleged perpetrators of exploitation and feed this information into the police database and MARTHR;
  • Map children and their associations to identify potential links between groups and help identify further potential victims and perpetrators;
  • Keep a record and track any changes to the children’s risk level;
  • Assist practitioners in their protection of children assessed at these levels through information, advice, guidance and risk based challenge; especially where there is no evidence of a reduction in risk over a period of time.

The CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting may also identify children who are potentially at risk of Criminal Exploitation. In these instances they will request completion of the CCE Measurement tool to be coordinated by the most appropriate professional via that agency’s meeting representative.

CCE is subject to the SHIELD governance arrangements which reports to the KSCB via the Child Exploitation and Missing Subgroup. These governance arrangements will apply regardless of which forum is utilized to monitor CCE casework activity and compliance to the protocol. The current forum is the CCE section of the Children and Young Persons meeting.

It is essential that there is a flow of information in to and out of the CCE section of the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meeting in order to prevent and protect children from Criminal Exploitation.


6. CCE Process Flowchart

Click here to view Child Criminal Exploitation Process Flowchart


7. Complaints Procedure

If a complaint is made against a specific worker then the agency complaints procedure should be followed. If a complaint is made regarding the Criminal Exploitation process, the Safeguarding Boards Complaints and Resolutions Procedure should be applied.


Appendix 1: CCE Measurement tool and CCE Risk Reduction Plan

Click here to view Appendix 1: CCE Measurement tool and CCE Risk Reduction Plan


Appendix 2: Guidance on Completing the CCE Measurement Tool

  1. The CCE Measurement tool should be completed when:
    • A professional or group of professionals is concerned that a child is at risk of becoming, or is currently being, criminally exploited;
    • A parent/caregiver is expressing concern to professionals that their child is at risk of becoming, or is currently being, criminally exploited;
    • A child is indicating that they are at risk of becoming, or are currently being, criminally exploited.
  2. Wherever possible, the screening tool should be completed in a multiagency meeting with contribution from as many professionals involved with the child and their family as possible;
  3. Police should be included in the completion of the CCE Measurement tool, if they cannot attend the meeting then there needs to be some form of consultation with Police prior to the meeting, even if this is a phone call or email exchange so that current intelligence/information from a Police prospective is included. The email address is: C.Community.Hub.1@merseyside.pnn.police.uk;
  4. Parents/Caregivers should also contribute to the completion of the CCE Measurement tool and plan;

    In the very least they should be informed that the CCE Measurement tool is going to be completed and informed of the outcome as soon as possible unless doing so increases the risk to the child or their family;
  5. The child should also contribute to the completion of the CCE Measurement tool and plan. However, due to the nature of criminal exploitation they may not consider themselves as exploited, may not fully understand the risks involved, may not wish to be helped or may be fearful of intervention. In the very least the child should be informed that the CCE Measurement tool is going to be completed and informed of the outcome as soon as possible unless doing so increases the risk to them or their family;
  6. There are 17 areas that require scoring within the CCE Measurement tool. Eleven relate to risk factors associated with the child, five relate to risk factors associated with parents/caregivers and one is professional judgement score;
  7. For risk factors relating to the child and parents/caregivers, guidance is given within each area as to which score you should choose out of a possible five options (0 – 4). You should take a ‘best fit’ approach to this as not all eventualities can be covered within the examples;
  8. For Professional Judgement score, you should score between 1-10. This section is included to take into account concerns that have not otherwise formed part of the assessment;
  9. The final risk score should be used as a guide for the appropriate response;

    Professional override can be employed, especially where scores are borderline. The reasons for this include:
    • The CCE Measurement tool is based on current risk factors. Perpetrators of criminal exploitation are known to change their target once certain vulnerable groups have been identified by professionals as at risk of CCE;
    • Different agencies may have different definitions for the term ‘risk’;
    • The protective factors may negate the need for professional intervention;
    • The child may only have one or two risk factors (low score) but is suspected of being a high risk (for example, they score 0-1 in all areas other than they are not in school and are known to associate with criminal nominals. Although the risk score will indicate low, the likelihood is they are at least a medium risk of exploitation);
    • There may be circumstances when it is known that there is no current criminal exploitation however static factors maintain a medium score. This can be used to evidence why the young person no longer needs to remain the CCE process.
  10. Risk levels should be agreed within the multiagency team. If there is an irresolvable disagreement as to which risk level response the child should receive then the more cautionary, higher level response should be utilized. The CCE Measurement tool can then be reviewed more frequently if necessary;
  11. For children assessed as a medium or higher level of risk, the CCE Measurement tool and plan should be reviewed at least every 3 months, until the risk has reduced to low. This should happen sooner if significant information is received that may increase or decrease the child’s level of risk.


Appendix 3: CCE Process

Click here to view Appendix 3: CCE Process


Appendix 4: CCE Notification of Exploitation Risk

Click here to view Appendix 4: CCE Notification of Exploitation Risk


Appendix 5: CCE2 – Notification of Exploitation Risk Level Change

Click here to view Appendix 5: CCE2 – Notification of Exploitation Risk Level Change


Appendix 6: Multi Agency Referral Form (MARF) 

Click here to view Appendix 6: Knowsley MASH (Multi-Agency Referral Form)


Appendix 7: Quality Assurance CCE Tool

Click here to view Appendix 7: Quality Assurance CCE Tool


Appendix 8: Guidance on Completing CCE Risk Reduction Plan and Example 

  1. A plan to reduce the risk of criminal exploitation should be completed for all children who are assessed as medium and high risk of becoming criminally exploited or who are suspected of currently being exploited;
  2. The plan should be completed within a multi-agency setting and should seek to address the 4 P’s:
    • Prepare – what can be put into place to prepare the young person and family to manage the effects of criminal exploitation suffered/experienced;
    • Prevent – what can be put into place to prevent further criminal exploitation;
    • Protect – what external safeguards can be put into place;
    • Pursue (prosecute) – What action can be taken against the perpetrators.
  3. If an existing plan already exists, the plan to reduce the risk of criminal exploitation can be incorporated into this plan. For example, a Child in Need, Child Protection, YOS Risk Management or Early Help Plan;
  4. All agencies involved with the family and child should attend this meeting and if they are unable to, they should at least forward any steps they feel are necessary to reduce the risk;
  5. Family and caregivers are a protective factor for children at risk of criminal exploitation. It is therefor important that they are included in the process, contribute to and are incorporated within the plan;
  6. Consideration should also be given to including contribution from the child in this process and to the plan. Given the nature of criminal exploitation, the child may not recognise that they are being exploited and therefore may not wish to be involved. However, they should at least be made aware that caregivers and professionals are concerned about their wellbeing and are taking steps to keep them safe from harm.

    Safety and reducing the risk
  7. The completed CCE Measurement tool should be used to help guide where intervention is to be targeted, with the most significant risks being addressed first. However the plan should not be exclusively based on the CCE Measurement tool - it will be helpful to think about the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors and to target intervention in both these areas;
  8. The focus of the steps should be on preventing and protecting the child as a victim rather than criminalizing or pursuing them as a perpetrator;
  9. All agencies and the caregivers need to consider how they can help protect and reduce the risk to the child. It is likely that involvement in crime is lucrative for the child and that they are fearful and/or protective of the exploiters. It is therefore unlikely that they will engage in interventions that aim to reduce their involvement. A plan which mostly relies on the engagement of the child will not be robust enough to keep them safe;
  10. Suggestions of what could be included in the plan to help protect the child are in table 2 overleaf.  Appendix 9: Menu of Interventions offers a menu of interventions that can be utilised within the plan to help prevent exploitation;
  11. Evidence shows positive change can be driven by a good relationship between the child and professionals. As described, these children may not consider themselves as exploited, may enjoy the lifestyle they are undertaking or may be fearful of repercussions from exploiters if they were to stop. It is therefore important that professionals take a proactive approach to engaging with these children;
  12. Within the plan, consideration should also be given to the safety of the family as a whole;
  13. The plan should be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely and should clearly state who is responsible for which action;
  14. The plan should be reviewed at least every 3 months. Therefore, it is not necessary to try and address every risk factor within one plan. It is likely that the first plan will include initial safety steps (to protect) whereas subsequent plans will include steps to reduce risk (prevent);
  15. The plan should be reviewed at least every 3 months. There should always be an up to date plan if the child is assessed as high or is suspected of being currently exploited. New risks may transpire within multi agency meetings or be forwarded by the Children and Young Person’s Neighbourhood Meetings. If there are already established multi-agency meetings taking place, the preference would be to use these meetings rather than arrange additional ones to review the plan and CCE Measurement tool;
  16. Once completed, the plan should be uploaded onto the electronic recording system and be distributed to the caregivers and relevant professionals within 72hours.

Table 2: Potential actions to be taken within the risk reduction plan to help protect the child

Family/Caregiver examples Professional/agency examples
  • Curfew and agreement to report missing at a certain time;
  • Regular visual check-ins to prevent travelling long distances;
  • Agreeing a ‘safe word’ with the child to use if they are in trouble and ensuring they have a working mobile with credit;
  • Keeping cutlery (especially knives) locked away and doing a regular item check Checking the child’s room for drugs and weapons;
  • Identifying a ‘safe house’ to go to at short notice and agreeing this in advance Identifying a person who can babysit younger children at short notice and agreeing this in advance;
  • Agreeing to and participating in parenting support;
  • Regular health checks on the child and agreement to take to A+E if necessary.
  • Provision of safety items such as: lockable boxes, mobile phones, fire alarms and blankets, panic alarms;
  • Use of statutory powers such as bail conditions, doorstep or electronic curfews, or specific requirements within a court order;
  • To give appointment times at riskiest times or stagnated throughout the day to prevent the child travelling long distances;
  • Increased patrols in neighbourhood;
  • Full school/education timetable;
  • Education – home communication agreement;
  • Child Abduction Warning Notices;
  • Individual work with the child to increase risk awareness and resilience.

Click here to view Child Criminal Exploitation Risk Reduction Plan – Example


Appendix 9: Menu of Interventions

Below is a list of resources that can be included in the plan to reduce the risk of exploitation. It is not an exhaustive list and is meant as a guide only.

Individual work with the young person

The Y Project
The Y Project is a series of workshops, short films and education resources designed to tackle and increase understanding of the issues of youth gun, knife and gang crime

Joseph Lappin Story (Trailer)
The DVD and educational resource pack 'Joseph's Story', is based on the murder of 16- year old Joseph Lappin and highlights the law of Joint Enterprise.

Mad, Bad or Misunderstood? 
”Mad’, ‘Bad’ or Misunderstood?’ is a unique one day mental health promotion training course. It offers an opportunity to reflect on and gain an understanding of how young peoples’ behaviour can act as communication and through this we can explore the context of the child or young person’s life

KOOTH
Online counselling support for young people

CRI
Free and confidential alcohol and drug service

Talk to Frank
Information, advice and guidance on all types of drug use

Think Knowsley
Free health advice for teenagers in Knowsley, including substance misuse

Community

Youth Mutual
KYM is a unique organisation, run for young people by young people and half owned by the young people of Knowsley. It offers various activities within the different areas of Knowsley

MALS
M.A.L.S Merseyside are a mentoring service working with young people between the ages of 11-19 and victims of homicide and domestic abuse and criminal exploitation.

Hack Back
Offer a range of interventions combining psychological therapies with interaction with Birds of Prey

School
Knowsley School Attendance Service - TBC Alternative Education Providers
Safer School Officers

Family
Family First Parenting Support, programmes and interventions
Family Group Conferencing
MST
YOS Parenting

Shield
Individual or family intervention/oversight for those children at high risk of exploitation, working with the parents around their understanding of criminal exploitation, how to identify the potential signs of exploitation, identifying risk and offering support with the risk reduction plan.

Miscellaneous
Individual or family support from lead practitioner
Peer mentoring
Sports clubs and targeted sports programme

End